Cattle Grazing on Reclaimed Fields Which Have Been Affected by Open-Cut Mining
After open-cut mining has been completed in a given area, the land affected is graded and planted in forage crops. Seeding done to date has consisted of a mixture of legumes and grasses with alfalfa predominateing, but also included were sweet clover, birdsfoot trefoil, brome grass and orchard grass. Other mixtures which have been used include alfalfa and brome grass, and birdsfoot trefoil with blue grass. A few years after seeding, these fields will supposrt a good stand of forage crops. White faced Hereford cattle are then turned out for grazing. Experience has shown that the cattle often gain wieght faster in these fields than in adjoining fields unaffected by open cut mining. It is also interesting to note that when the cattle are given their choice of a grazing spot, they invariably choose the restored fields. The open-cut mining operations contribute greatly to the enrichment of this soil. This is because in the process of open-cut mining a vein of water-soluble limestone is broken up and mixed in with the soil. This photograph shows white faced Herefords grazing in a field which has been affected by open-cut mining and later graded and planted. Hanna Coal Company, Division of Pittsburgh Consolidation Coal Company.
Double Decker Drill in Operation at Georgetown Mine, Georgetown, Ohio, Hanna Coal Company
Caption on back reads, 'Stiff-arming a highwall is the job of this new, double-decker drill in operation at the Georgetown mine, Hanna Coal Co., at Georgetown, Ohio. Fruit of the ingenuity of coal mining engineers, the drill makes two blast holes at different levels in the highwall, permitting a blasting shot that brings down a large section of 'overburden.' The 'overburden,' rock, shale, limestone, clay and other mineral deposits, lies above the coal seam. Surface, or open-pit mining, accounts for 23 percent of total bituminous production. The Georgetown mine is the largest surface mine in the world.'